COMMUNITIES


COMMUNITIES
Members of the Jewish community known as Abayudaya in Mbale, Uganda, 224 km east of Kampala, leave their synagogue after morning prayers, 2005. Patrick OlumReutersCorbis. Members of the Jewish community known as Abayudaya in Mbale, Uganda, 224 km east of Kampala, leave their synagogue after morning prayers, 2005. © Patrick Olum/Reuters/Corbis.   IN 2005, THE WORLDWIDE JEWISH POPULATION WAS ESTIMATED TO BE CLOSE TO 14 MILLION PERSONS, WITH ITS LARGEST NUMBERS IN NORTH AMERICA AND ISRAEL. DESPITE THE LARGE CONCENTRATIONS IN THESE TWO GEOGRAPHICAL AREAS, THERE ARE JEWS ALL OVER THE WORLD WHO COME FROM A VARIETY OF RACIAL AND ETHNIC BACKGROUNDS. HERE ARE A FEW FACES THAT ILLUSTRATE THE DIVERSITY AND VIBRANCY OF JEWISH LIFE IN ITS MANY WORLD-SCATTERED COMMUNITIES.   Sukkah in the Jewish Quarter (Mellah) of Marrakesh, Morocco, 1994. Moroccan Jews often build their sukkot with palm-tree branches or reeds, so that they look completely green from the outside. of Marrakesh, Morocco, 1994. Moroccan Jews often build their sukkot with palm-tree branches or reeds, so that they look completely green from the outside.") Sukkah in the Jewish Quarter (Mellah) of Marrakesh, Morocco, 1994. Moroccan Jews often build their sukkot with palm-tree branches or reeds, so that they look completely green from the outside.Sukkot are decorated with pictures of venerated rabbis, mainly of R. Simeon bar Yohai, traditional author of the Zohar. Every night during Sukkot selected portions from the Zohar are recited. Photo: Alex Levac, Israel. By courtesy of Beth Hatefutsoth Photo Archive, Tel Aviv.     A teenage Ethiopian boy prepares to pray at the Beta Israel School in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2003. A teenage Ethiopian boy prepares to pray at the Beta Israel School in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2003. Although many members of the Jewish community in Addis Ababa were airlifted by the Israeli government in the 1980s and 1990s, in 2003 17,000 Ethiopian Jews were still awaiting aliyah, or emigration to Israel. Photo by Natalie Behring-Chisholm/Getty Images.     An Israeli dressed as a clown performs for a group during Purim celebrations in Hebr West Bank, 2006. GALI TIBBONAFP Getty Images. An Israeli dressed as a clown performs for a group during Purim celebrations in Hebr West Bank, 2006. GALI TIBBON/AFP/ Getty Images.   Matisyahu, a Lubavitch Hasidic Jew who raps over reggae music about traditional Jewish beliefs, performs the night before the beginning of Passover in Northampton, Massachusetts, 2006. Photo by Mario TamaGetty Images. Matisyahu, a Lubavitch Hasidic Jew who raps over reggae music about traditional Jewish beliefs, performs the night before the beginning of Passover in Northampton, Massachusetts, 2006. Photo by Mario Tama/Getty Images.     Sukkah posed on a boat in the canals of the Ghetto in Venice, Italy, 2004. The idea was initiated by Chabad House, the Lubavitch institution in the city. Photo: Yaakov Brill, Israel. By courtesy of Beth Hatefutsoth Photo Archive, Tel Aviv Sukkah posed on a boat in the canals of the Ghetto in Venice, Italy, 2004. The idea was initiated by Chabad House, the Lubavitch institution in the city. Photo: Ya'akov Brill, Israel. By courtesy of Beth Hatefutsoth Photo Archive, Tel Aviv   Members of Congregation Beth Simchat Torah celebrate Hanukkah, 2004. The synagogue serves the gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender communities in New York City. Courtesy of Congregation Beth Simchat Torah. Photo by Donna Aceto. Members of Congregation Beth Simchat Torah celebrate Hanukkah, 2004. The synagogue serves the gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender communities in New York City. Courtesy of Congregation Beth Simchat Torah. Photo by Donna Aceto.     Students at Heschel High School, a private Jewish school in New York City, listen to a lecture from behind their laptop computers. Richard LevineAlamy. Students at Heschel High School, a private Jewish school in New York City, listen to a lecture from behind their laptop computers. © Richard Levine/Alamy.     A rabbi arrives to run the mechanical grape sorter to begin the winemaking process at a Kosher winery in Saint-milion, France, 2003. Lucille BassCorbis. A rabbi arrives to run the mechanical grape sorter to begin the winemaking process at a Kosher winery in Saint-Émilion, France, 2003. © Lucille Bass/Corbis.     A group of Israeli women pray at the Western Wall, 2000. Ricki RosenCorbis. A group of Israeli women pray at the Western Wall, 2000. © Ricki Rosen/Corbis.   Birth certificate of Ilia Bard issued by the health department of the municipal council of Shanghai, China, December 1942. Photo: Eliahu Bard, Israel. By courtesy of Beth Hatefutsoth Photo Archive, Tel Aviv. Birth certificate of Ilia Bard issued by the health department of the municipal council of Shanghai, China, December 1942. Photo: Eliahu Bard, Israel. By courtesy of Beth Hatefutsoth Photo Archive, Tel Aviv.   Half Title Page ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA Title Page ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA SECOND EDITION VOLUME 21 WEL–ZY FRED SKOLNIK, Editor in Chief MICHAEL BERENBAUM, Executive Editor Copyright Page copyright page ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition Fred Skolnik, Editor in Chief Michael Berenbaum, Executive Editor Shlomo S. (Yosh) Gafni, Editorial Project Manager Rachel Gilon, Editorial Project Planning and Control Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning Gordon Macomber, President Frank Menchaca, Senior Vice President and Publisher Jay Flynn, Publisher Hélène Potter, Publishing Director Keter Publishing House Yiphtach Dekel, Chief Executive Officer Peter Tomkins, Executive Project Director Complete staff listings appear in Volume 1 ©2007 Keter Publishing House Ltd. Gale, is a part of The Cengage Learning Inc. Cengage, Burst Logo and Macmillan Reference USA are trademarks and Gale is a registered trademark used herein under license. For more information, contact Macmillan Reference USA An imprint of Gale 27500 Drake Rd. Farmington Hills, MI 48331-3535 Or you can visit our internet site at http://www.gale.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means – graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, web distribution, or information storage retrieval systems – without the written permission of the publisher. For permission to use material from this product, submit your request via Web at http://www.gale-edit.com/permissions, or you may download our Permissions Request form and submit your request by fax or mail to: Permissions Department <address> Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning 27500 Drake Road Farmington Hills, MI 48331-3535 </address> Permissions Hotline: (+1) 248-699-8006 or 800-877-4253 ext. 8006 Fax: (+1) 248-699-8074 or 800-762-4058 Since this page cannot legibly accommodate all copyright notices, the acknowledgments constitute an extension of the copyright notice. While every effort has been made to ensure the reliability of the information presented in this publication, Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning does not guarantee the accuracy of the data contained herein. Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning accepts no payment for listing; and inclusion in the publication of any organization, agency, institution, publication, service, or individual does not imply endorsement of the editors or publisher. Errors brought to the attention of the publisher and verified to the satisfaction of the publisher will be corrected in future editions. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA Encyclopaedia Judaica / Fred Skolnik, editor-in-chief; Michael Berenbaum, executive editor. — 2nd ed. v. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. Contents: v.1. Aa-Alp. ISBN 0-02-865928-7 (set hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865929-5 (vol. 1 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865930-9 (vol. 2 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865931-7 (vol. 3 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865932-5 (vol. 4 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865933-3 (vol. 5 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865934-1 (vol. 6 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865935-X (vol. 7 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865936-8 (vol. 8 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865937-6 (vol. 9 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865938-4 (vol. 10 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865939-2 (vol. 11 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865940-6 (vol. 12 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865941-4 (vol. 13 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865942-2 (vol. 14 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865943-0 (vol. 15: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865944-9 (vol. 16: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865945-7 (vol. 17: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865946-5 (vol. 18: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865947-3 (vol. 19: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865948-1 (vol. 20: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865949-X (vol. 21: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865950-3 (vol. 22: alk. paper) 1\. Jews — Encyclopedias. I. Skolnik, Fred. II. Berenbaum, Michael, 1945- DS102.8.E496 2007 909′.04924 — dc22      2006020426 ISBN-13: 978-0-02-865928-2 (set) 978-0-02-865929-9 (vol. 1) 978-0-02-865930-5 (vol. 2) 978-0-02-865931-2 (vol. 3) 978-0-02-865932-9 (vol. 4) 978-0-02-865933-6 (vol. 5) 978-0-02-865934-3 (vol. 6) 978-0-02-865935-0 (vol. 7) 978-0-02-865936-7 (vol. 8) 978-0-02-865937-4 (vol. 9) 978-0-02-865938-1 (vol. 10) 978-0-02-865939-8 (vol. 11) 978-0-02-865940-4 (vol. 12) 978-0-02-865941-1 (vol. 13) 978-0-02-865942-8 (vol. 14) 978-0-02-865943-5 (vol. 15) 978-0-02-865944-2 (vol. 16) 978-0-02-865945-9 (vol. 17) 978-0-02-865946-6 (vol. 18) 978-0-02-865947-3 (vol. 19) 978-0-02-865948-0 (vol. 20) 978-0-02-865949-7 (vol. 21) 978-0-02-865950-3 (vol. 22) This title is also available as an e-book ISBN-10: 0-02-866097-8 ISBN-13: 978-0-02-866097-4 Contact your Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning representative for ordering information. Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS Entries WEL–ZY 5 • Abbreviations GENERAL ABBREVIATIONS 701 ABBREVIATIONS USED IN RABBINICAL LITERATURE 702 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL ABBREVIATIONS 708 • Transliteration Rules 721 Glossary 724 WELENSKY, SIR ROY WELENSKY, SIR ROY (Roland; 1907–1991), Rhodesian statesman. Welensky was a leading figure in the political life of Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia) and Southern Rhodesia for nearly 25 years. He was a member of the National Council of the Railway Workers' Union and a founder of the Northern Rhodesia Labor Party. During World War II Welensky was director of manpower and a member of the executive council (1940–53). He campaigned for federation of the two Rhodesias in close association with Sir Godfrey Huggins (Lord Malvern), the first prime minister of the Federation, whom he succeeded in 1956. Welensky advocated a policy of "partnership" between the white and non-white races of the Federation. The partnership failed, either because it was unworkable or because, as many claimed, it was never properly applied owing to white opposition, and the Federation broke up in 1963 despite all Welensky's efforts. He retired from politics, settling as a farmer in Southern Rhodesia, and wrote an account of the Federation in Welensky's 4,000 Days (1964). In 1966, Welensky tried to come back to politics but was defeated in the election. One of 13 children of Michael Welensky (from Lithuania), a boardinghouse keeper, and his Afrikaner wife who converted to Judaism on their marriage, Welensky maintained links with Jewry. In his teens he was a railroadman, took up boxing, and in 1926–28 was the heavyweight champion of the Rhodesias. He lived his last year in England. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: D. Taylor, The Rhodesian (1955); G. Allingham, The Welensky Story (1962). ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: ODNB online; R. Welensky, Welensky's 4000 Days: The Life and Death of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (1964). (Lewis Sowden)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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